Effective Discussions and Directions in Online Spaces

By Tina Stavropoulos, Janelle Arafiles, and Stefanie Tate

As we enter our “new normal” with increasing online and hybrid offerings, many of us are rethinking how we interact with students and how we set up our courses. For many, pre-Covid teaching was exclusively done in the face-to-face format, but now all of us have experience with online courses and many more of us will have increasing experience in hybrid courses. This benefits our students who have always needed some level of flexibility, and now our focus as instructors needs to be on providing the best instruction possible in the online space. Being transparent and clear with students while setting clear deadlines (with a little wiggle room) and expectations is essential as we work with our students to support their success. While we can chat about peer reviews and other assignments during our meeting, our overview in this blog will focus primarily on the discussion board assignments and announcements. 

Two key questions will inform this blog post and our subsequent discussion later this month:  

  • How do you clarify your expectations and assess the work in discussion boards (and other online assignments)?   
  • What is your role in discussion board assignments and Canvas as a whole?  

Regular, effective, and substantive interaction 

For engagement to be regular, effective, and substantive, our backwards course design must be intentional. In Advancing Online Teaching: Creating Equity-Based Digital Learning Environments, Kevin Kelly and Todd Zakrajsek suggest having a consistent announcement schedule.  “On Mondays, send students a ‘What’s Due & What’s New’ message… On Wednesdays, send students a ‘Midweek Motivation’ note to share ideas from early student posts, to remind students to spread out online coursework, to provide encouragement, and to share real-world examples. On Fridays, send a ‘Weekend Update’ announcement” (138). Tina tends to send announcements randomly and organically during a given week, but the suggestions they make are very sound and can help with organizing instruction time. Tina also creates one or two lecture videos at the beginning of a weekly module and sends an announcement to remind students of missing posts and so on, but these suggestions are going into her checklist for next semester. Janelle pre-plans Monday announcements that remind students of upcoming readings, essays, threaded discussions, etc. and signs off with an encouraging note and humanizing meme. After receiving Dr. Sell’s weekly memo on Thursday, she sends a more real-time announcement to: inform students about upcoming events and opportunities regarding the college, praises or encouragements, and gentle reminders if an important due date is coming up.  (The occasional study music recommendation sneaks in there, too.)  

In addition to these foundational, initial weekly announcements, interactions with your students online through discussion boards in online and hybrid courses is essential. Just like you would not let one student monopolize in-person instruction, the same applies online. Making sure that you track who you respond to so that you are interacting with all students throughout the semester is vital and can help address any blind spots. In Tina’s English courses, for example, she replies to all students the first two weeks and then tries to reply to random posts. A suggestion that was made in various texts was to print the class roster and write a checkmark when interacting or highlighting a student response. For Tina’s courses, attendance is tracked through participation in discussion boards, and this is included in the weekly objectives page at the start of each weekly module. Janelle leads and actively responds to every post in the first week for introductions. After that point, she guides and intervenes in threaded discussions as issues or questions arise by checking in daily. Personal praises and encouragements are added to each graded post to motivate gradual changes and enhance the depth of future discussions with each thread. The suggestions offered by Kelly and Zakrajsek are great: “Create a list or spreadsheet to track how many times you reply to each student over the entire length of your class. Make sure that students have a similar number of replies by the end of the semester… This technique will also help you identify and reach out to students who are not engaging in discussions. In your syllabus, tell your students how you intend to be more equitable… and how often they can expect a direct reply from you” (144). Holding yourself responsible is a necessary pressure and will make Early Alert notifications even more effective. Additionally, consider adding a “How I Will Contact You” portion to your Instructor Page. By letting students know the mediums we use, how often, and why we will contact them creates mutual accountability and assures them that they are not alone in the online space.  

The weekly objectives page is another moment where one can announce and clarify expectations and directions for a weekly module. Using Bloom’s taxonomy for learning objectives, you can also ensure your weekly assignments are essential for meeting the SLOs and Course Objectives from the COR. By adding this page on the “to-do” list on Canvas on Mondays and hyperlinking (bold) all the pages and assignments, students can figure out when homework is due and set up their weekly schedule. Using the Design Tools can also elevate the look of your Canvas pages. 

Peer-to-Peer Engagement  

Discussion boards are an element of peer-to-peer interaction which we hope to examine and refine. We look forward to hearing how your courses are proceeding and what is and is not working. A few key considerations: the size of the group, how groups will hear from each other, and whether students can see posts from their peers before posting their own response.  

We usually break students up into small groups for discussion boards so that they can engage more effectively and not be inundated with 30 posts. Groups of five tend to be ideal, but you can also use your own observations of student work to create slightly larger groups. The flip side is when a group is not engaged, so keeping track of who does and does not post consistently is essential for mixing students up just like we would in face-to-face classes. More disciplined and organized students will be spread out amongst the groups. If a student has been inconsistent with posting, you obviously hope and encourage the best, but you can add one more student to that group, for example. This also applies if you know a student will be late with a post because of personal information they have conveyed to you. Without letting the others know, you can speak with the student and let them know if there will be a penalty on their post and so on. Tina happily reopens the discussion board if a necessity arises. Janelle, on the other hand, leaves the threaded discussions (and most assignments) unlocked so the deadline is listed, but it does not prevent them from submitting. This choice should reflect your late policy and the flexibility therein. In Janelle’s case, the late policy requests that students submit within one week after the due date, but late work is better than no work. The compassionate, weekly check-in Canvas messages hold them accountable and let them know she cares. In turn, students feel safe to reach out, catch up, and finish strong. In addition to providing a wrap-up and overview post or video, Tina sometimes asks students to complete their own group discussions early in the week and then post a group response in a shared class discussion board later in the week so that everyone can have a sense of what is being discussed just like one might do when students share out in a class discussion. The results vary, with hybrid courses having a better response than fully online courses. Another strategy Tina uses in hybrid courses is asking students to post the first part of the discussion board assignment before class, adding notes based on verbal discussion in class, and then continuing the discussion online through the week.  

Discussion boards also give less vocal students a low-pressure space to participate in online and hybrid courses and support one another in the learning process. Formulating clear reply guidelines and possibly providing sentence starters or questions for students to answer can help reduce any confusion about expectations around engagement.  An interesting suggestion comes from Aloni and Harrington. While many of us ask students to address the person they are responding to and provide some guidance about replies, “results of a study conducted by Eryilmaz et al. (2015) showed that when students were required to highlight, increase the font size, and select the levels of importance of key points made by their peers in an online discussion board, they spent more time negotiating the meaning of the information compared with an instructor-led or a control group who did not utilize these functions” (Aloni and Harrington 272). Including these guidelines in the “reply” requirements can help students think deeply about their interaction with their peers and can potentially motivate the receiver of the feedback since someone is engaging meaningfully with their response. 

In Janelle’s experience, some students feel too nervous to post without being able to see other student posts because they might doubt their comprehension of the material. To meet this need, she allows students to see other posts before posting. If you choose to click the “Users must post before seeing replies,” you can reinforce their confidence and connection with peers by creating a “Student Lounge” threaded discussion and pin it to the top of the discussion tab. Once you’ve established Discussion Guidelines, the Student Lounge can be a safe space for student interaction. They can informally check comprehension of material, form study groups, share ideas, post resources, share memes, etc. As the instructor, you can monitor from time to time (and specifically tell them so), but the beauty of this discussion is that online students come to see one another as reliable community members. 

Feedback from the Instructor 

Providing diverse activities with clear expectations motivates students. At the same time, being a warm demander means knowing your students and using that to support them. “Getting to know your students will take effort, but it will create an environment that fosters both academic rigor and real engagement” (142). In addition to setting up discussions for peer-to-peer engagement, another area to consider is instructor interaction with posts during a given week. It is a balancing act; “too much intervention by the instructor can interfere with students’ knowledge building” (Aloni and Harrington 274). Not responding at all can also make a student feel like the instructor is uninterested in their ideas and that makes them feel disconnected and devalued. As we attempt to integrate more cogenerative practices by letting students construct the learning journey, we need to balance the frequency of interaction and guidance in a manner that stokes growth but does not hinder or neglect.  

Creating interesting discussion board assignments is the first step and will yield diverse responses that will encourage other students and the instructor to read and engage with the material. If we have a rote assignment and do not see the value of a post, the same will apply to students. Thomas Keith’s article “Spark Effective Discussions with Canvas Discussion Boards” succinctly provides a list of ways we can make discussions and assignments more interesting by including action verbs, what-if prompts, role-play prompts, and multimedia prompts. This year, Janelle integrated Bloom’s Taxonomy (action verbs galore) by introducing objectives with explicit action verbs that clearly relay how learning will be expressed. During the next term, Janelle will be constructing more interesting prompts to provide meaningful engagement. What-if prompts could prove especially valuable when approaching social justice issues and readings. For example, when discussing “Letter from Birmingham Jail” we could make part of that prompt “What if Martin Luther King didn’t take a leadership role the Civil Rights Movement? What if the unheard had gone unseen?” Role-playing could prove more challenging, but instilling a new level of empathy is possible through argumentative prompts written from the perspective of those in need of change. Multimedia prompts are a work in progress for Janelle, but still pictures, avatars, and Canvas studio integrations have been a gradual success. Students love sharing what makes their heart happy. The more they feel connected to the community and confident in the atmosphere of compassion and safety, the more likely they are to share and challenge their skillsets with new tools. Starting with pictures and gently moving up to brief recordings reinforces active student roles in the online space where they feel seen and valued.  

Once we create those interesting assignments, we need to consider how we respond to the work. This also means figuring out your response to posts that are not quite on track in a way that does not stifle participation. “The instructor can regulate the conversation by pointing out themes, highlighting accurate and important posts, correcting inaccuracies and proving a meaningful summary of the conversation” (282). That attention to our own behavior is often overlooked, but it provides yet one more moment of interaction where our behavior can make a student feel either seen and valued or can reaffirm negative stereotypes and triggers from past experiences. Often, we rely on the deficits in the performance, but thinking with a positive approach would create a safer, more collaborative space. “Feedforward simply asks the learner to reflect on what he could do better the next time… For example, rather than saying ‘I liked the examples, but wish there had been more of them,’ the teacher might say, ‘I really think your use of examples brings the ideas to life. How could you include more?’” (Tokuhama-Espinosa 15). Another tool is using appreciative inquiry language and teaching students to use the same model with each other. “Appreciative inquiry is based upon the act of appreciation and the premise of inquiry… From a developmental viewpoint, appreciation refers to acknowledging the value that a person holds, and inquiry denotes a process of exploration as a means of enhancing the learning process… there is combined purpose of uniting the two processes as a means of creating a shared vision or images about the future” (Johnson 8). Using the 4D cycle of discovery, dream, design, and destiny creates a vision for success. “The goal of an appreciative andragogy 4D cycle is to enhance the development of the instructor’s relationship with their students,” but it can also be taught and used by students in discussion boards and peer reviews. Beginning with student hopes and prior experiences with a course in the discovery phase and then imagining what the future will look like sets up the dream stage. The dream phase might simply be finishing the course, but some students will have additional goals. In the design phase, resources and strategies are shared and the destiny phase involves using the resources.  

Another possible approach to extending the discussion prompt (and peer reviews) is Jennifer Stewart-Mitchell’s 3CQ model: compliment, connect, comment, and question.  

  • Compliment. To acknowledge the contributions of others, Stewart-Mitchell encourages learners to start by praising a specific aspect of the post. A template might direct learners to begin their post with the phrase, “I like that your post…” 
  • Connect. This step is also about building community and connection. It’s about relating, on a person level, with what the person said. For example, the learner might write, “I had the same thing happen to me when…” or “I read a similar story in X which…” 
  • Comment. The next step adds to what was said in the post by providing a response to it. It may be a statement of agreement or disagreement. The response may begin with, “What I would add to your post is that…” or “I might come to a different conclusion because…” 
  • Question. The last step is about keeping the conversation going by asking a specific question about the topic under discussion. Ways to state this is to write, “I wonder why…” or “What effect might X have on…” 

While this approach does not provide an initial post guide, it does work as an effective response template for those who are new to the online platform or need a little more direction on how to connect with their peers.  

Grading & Assessment  

Clear, consistent grading or rubrics are another essential element of online assignments, including discussion boards. Having clear and consistent due dates can help students organize their time. Tina asks students to post their response to an activity on Wednesday by 11:00 p.m. and reply to a certain number of peers in their small groups by Sunday at 11:00 p.m.. Janelle utilizes a similar timeline as it allows students plenty of time to read the material, formulate an initial response, and continue to contribute through the last half of the week. This set of due dates is followed most weeks except when a larger piece of text is due and there might be a switch to Friday/Sunday due dates; Tina also explains to students what the penalty will be (if any) for posting their response late and lets them know that a weekly discussion board closes by 11:59 p.m. Tina does not use a rubric (although she will), but she lets them know the number of points available for the response and replies. Janelle has adopted the @ONE course suggestion for points/grading clarity by providing a section below the instructions for information on grading and a 4-point rubric with specific terminology that details the expectations for each score.  

Screenshot of a rubric on Canvas, with criteria in left-most column (initial post, replies to peers) and Ratings and points breakdown in columns 2-4.
Janelle’s work-in-progress rubric for threaded discussions

In addition to point or grading rubrics, frontloading the purpose of the discussion can help students see the pedagogical purpose.  “Several studies have shown that students do not participate when they are confused about the instructor’s expectations of them or do not understand the purpose and value of the discussion. Using the TILT framework can help here. By outlining the purpose, task, and criteria, students have a clear, accessible goal. 

Utilizing DE Resources

Admittedly, incorporating these ideas into your Canvas courses in a practical way can feel challenging and time-consuming. Here’s some good news: you don’t have to do it alone! RCCD Distance Education has Course Developers who can assist you in building new course content, effective discussions, substantive announcements, descriptive rubrics, and much more. Following your directions, they can even build content in Canvas for you, freeing up your time to focus on instruction and feedback. To get Course Developer assistance, you can book a 1:1 appointment that works for your schedule or attend an Ask It! Drop-insession during College Hour, Monday-Thursday, from 12:50-1:50 pm.

What’s more: District DE has pre-built, visually appealing templates to kickstart your content building in Canvas. These DesignPLUS templates are structured to align with the OEI Course Design Rubric and feature many of the strong practices highlighted in the blog post—styled and ready for you to customize. Visit DE’s OEI Course Design Rubric Workshop Series to watch short, step-by-step “Build It!” tutorials for using each template in Canvas.

We look forward to hearing how you set up your online course and the successes and struggles you have on Friday, November 18. We hope we can go into Fall Break with a renewed sense of excitement as we start wrapping up Fall 2022!

Works Cited

Aloni, Maya, and Christine Harrington. “Research Based Practices for Improving the Effectiveness of Asynchronous Online Discussion Boards.” Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, vol. 4, no. 2, Dec. 2018, pp. 271- 289. EBSCOHost, http://dx.doi.org.rcc.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/stl0000121.  Accessed 28 Oct. 2022. 

John, Bruce. “Transformation of Online Teaching Practices through Implementation of Appreciative Inquiry.” Online Learning, vol. 18, no. 3, Oct. 2014, pp. 1- 21. ERIC, https://rcc.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1043165&site=ehost-live. Accessed 1 Nov. 2022.

Keith, Thomas. “Spark Effective Discussions with Canvas Discussion Boards.” Courses at UChicago, https://courses.uchicago.edu/2019/11/22/spark-effective-discussions-with-canvas-discussion-boards/.   Accessed 1 Nov. 2022.

Kelly, Kevin and Todd Zakrajsek. Advancing Online Teaching: Creating Equity-Based Digital Learning Environments. Stylus, 2021.

Mcdaniel, Rhett. “Bloom’s Taxonomy.” Vanderbilt University, Vanderbilt University, 10 June 1970, https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/blooms-taxonomy/.   Accessed 1 Nov. 2022.

Prud’homme-Généreux, Annie. “21 Ways to Structure an Online Discussion, Part Three: Faculty Focus.” Faculty Focus | Higher Ed Teaching & Learning, 26 Apr. 2021, https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/online-student-engagement/21-ways-to-structure-an-online-discussion-part-three/.  Accessed 1 Nov. 2022.

Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey. Bringing the Neuroscience of Learning to Online Teaching. Teachers College Press, 2021.

Additional Resources

Working in the ZPD: Supporting Students Through a Writing Project

When I was asked to lead a Community of Practice event, I enthusiastically accepted.  Having the chance to reflect on this topic and lead a workshop as an adjunct is something that I take seriously because I know the commitment we make to our students and the desire we have to continue improving our own instruction.  As the date approached, however, the familiar anxiety started to creep in.  (Anxiety compounded with the sea of papers and midterms!  We all know the struggle…  We can do this, my friends.)  Anyway, as I was saying, when I was a student, I always felt an *almost* debilitating anxiety when I had to write even though I have always excelled in academics.  My friends and classmates would shrug it off because they *knew* I would receive high marks, but I never had that confidence, so I worked hard and tried to control my anxiety.  I didn’t have a clear understanding of what every professor wanted in my writing, but I wrote to the best of my ability, often in a rushed late-night session.  Luckily, it turned out well.  (Shhh… Don’t tell my students!)  This personal struggle with anxiety and without explicit guidance is something that I discuss with my students, and it is one of the reasons that I spend so much time attending to the affective needs of students while also organizing and developing activities that address critical thinking, personal growth, and the writing process. 

For our conversation this month, I chose Raymond Wlodkowski’s Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn: A Comprehensive Guide for Teaching All Adults.  The text resonated with me because it takes adult learners seriously and navigates the overlap between pedagogy and andragogy in a way that makes sense. Malcolm Knowles, the educator who named and popularized andragogy in the United States in the 1950s, talks about adults wanting to be “seen and treated by others as capable of self-direction” (qtd. in Wlodkowski 97).  Our students are adults; they want and have agency, but they also need direction.  Most plead, “Just tell me what to do!” at the beginning of the semester.  There is a delicate balance between their need for agency and their desire for strict requirements, and we look forward to hearing how each of you navigate this balance and what has worked and what hasn’t always worked.  When thinking about writing projects, my team and I considered the larger 1A research paper but also the smaller writing projects that require research and the in-class writing projects.  We also considered how “support” is woven into this academic conversation.

We all understand the demands that our community college students carry.  Whether we know about each student’s individual story or not, we need to be aware of how past learning experiences and financial and familial burdens affect the success of our students.  Most of our students are underserved, and it is our responsibility to recognize and honor their commitment and choice to attend our institution.  As Luke Woods, Co-Director of the Community College Equity Assessment Lab (CCEAL), discussed at the RCCD Student Equity Summit last year, “every registration is an act of trust.”  For this reason, we need to understand what motivates our students, what they want from us, and how we can get what we and the college want from them. 

The skills that we need to hone, according to Wlodkowski, are expertise, empathy, enthusiasm, clarity, and cultural responsiveness.  Fundamentally, we need to honor our students’ perspectives and experiences, and we need to be organized and enthusiastic about our field.  If we cannot inspire the students and clearly articulate the concepts we need them to learn, they will lose interest.  We need to help them see how that particular essay will help in their life outside of the classroom; sometimes the content is what might apply to the outside world, while other times it is the writing skill or critical thinking itself.  For myself, I organize my class around a larger umbrella term of social justice and identity, and each paper includes key learning outcomes and writing strategies that slowly build on one another.  While I let my students vote on topics at least two times in the semester, I always have a vision of what writing and rhetorical strategies I will ask them to engage with for every larger writing assignment.  This helps me address all the skills listed above to the best of my ability. 

A point that I think is particularly relevant to our discussions around AB 705 is one of the hazards Wlodkowski links to lack of enthusiasm: “You are having an attack of the good-old-days bug.  The learners aren’t as good as they used to be.  The instructional conditions have deteriorated.  You see things as they once were.  You feel depressed.  You tell yourself things will not get better” (76- 77).  While we all have debated about AB705 and what this means in our classroom, his warning should be heeded.  If we begin romanticizing the mythical good ol’ days, we will project that same distress and frustration to our students.  Just as we need to address their own negative self-doubts and attitudes, we need to look inward and do the same with ourselves.  These are our students, and this is our task.  We must continue growing and encouraging our students to do the same.

Students need four motivational conditions in the college setting: inclusion, attitude, meaning, and competence (102).  Basically, our students need to feel that the classroom is a safe zone for them to express their positions without being attacked.  Related to this idea is the relationship not simply between the instructor and the students, but also between the students themselves.  In their journals, students in my classes talk about the friendships they formed in the classroom and about the peers who helped them understand topics when they were struggling.  (I integrate peer reviews and discussions from the first week of class to foster the academic and personal growth of every student in that room.) In addition to often fearing the professor in the classroom, many of our students are also fighting loneliness and isolation.  This is not separate from our teaching in my eyes.  We need to attend to the affective needs because if students are struggling emotionally, they will struggle to prioritize or find meaning in attending college and taking our English classes. 

Students need help with that in whatever form we feel comfortable providing, but they also need to see that what they are doing is relevant and meaningful.  For me, this means repeating the rationale behind my prewriting activities and reminding them that they can succeed in this course.  (It also means allowing conversations that deviate from the assigned task for a few minutes at the end of class.)  I don’t expect the students to understand why I am having them write a reflection when we first begin writing metacognitive reflections.  I make that link for all of them the first couple of times, and they slowly start doing that without much guidance with subsequent papers.  Wlodkowski says, “New learning often asks them [students] to become temporarily dependent, to open their minds to new ideas, to rethink certain beliefs, and to try different ways of doing things.  This may be threatening or difficult for them, and their attitudes can easily lock in to support their resistance” (176).  We honor that dependence and trust by being aware of *how* learning happens and what stumbling blocks might appear along the way and modifying our instruction accordingly.

Visual representation of Vygotsky’s zones of development

According to Lev Vygotsky, a leading theorist in social constructivism, there are three zones of learning, and providing scaffolding and support during our writing projects is how we can tap into and strengthen this learning.  The zone of actual development (ZAD) is where students have mastered the required skills and are then in their comfort zone.  This is where some of our independent students are found, and this is where we want all of our students to be by the end of our classes.  We want them comfortable with research, MLA, thesis statements, essay construction, etc.  Their mastery of the skills makes up our learning outcomes.  Most of our students are fluctuating between the zone of eventual development (ZED) and the zone of proximal development (ZPD).  In the ZED, or anxiety zone, students are unable to understand our lessons even with our scaffolding and support.  As Wlodkowski asserts, “If the learning tasks are well beyond their current skills or prior knowledge, people will not be able to accomplish them, no matter how motivated they are” (6).  What we will focus on is the ZPD, or the reach zone.  Working in the ZPD entails using a variety of scaffolding techniques.  This includes the following:

  • Modeling
  • Anticipating difficulties
  • Providing prompts and cues
  • Using dialogue and discussion
  • Regulating the difficulty
  • Providing a checklist
  • Using reciprocal teaching and practice. ( Wlodkowski 184- 86)

In order to scaffold learning effectively, we need to distribute responsibility increasingly on the student.  In my own classes, I limit the choices and structure of the first two essays, and then I invite students to take initiative.  I have explicit and somewhat rigid guidelines in order to help them feel prepared to take on the writing task.  I don’t want them to struggle with the writing assignment because they have unclear learning objectives and requirements.  Pre-writing activities combined with a writing checklist and outline template let them know exactly what I want them to focus on for each essay.  Later in the semester, while I am covering important rhetorical and writing skills in class, I let them take more initiative with the writing. Finally, I link all my writing assignments to the assigned essay and the future research project that culminates the class.

While we consider our scaffolding techniques, we also need to be aware of students’ own emotional states.  The anxiety that I—and I assume many of you—struggled with is something I see mirrored in most of my students.  It is why I actively and intentionally explain my rationale for activities in the classroom and the WRC, and why I talk to students directly when I see them expressing frustration or confusion in class or in their writing.  Taking the academic and affective dimensions into account, we can begin to discuss how to support our students through writing projects.

Questions to consider:

  • Where do you draw the line or how do you distinguish between coddling and scaffolding for our college students?
  • Where do your students struggle most with writing assignments?  What steps do you take for the class as a whole?  How do you direct students to address their own writing issues on an individual level?
  • How do you scaffold each writing project that you assign? How do you deconstruct the prompt? Do you slowly provide more freedom for students or is creativity something that you highlight from day one?
  • How much agency do you give your students with writing projects?
  • How do you ensure that students are understanding what is required in their writing and that they are improving on those skills?

Additional texts that I read in conjunction with Wlodkowski’s work:

  • Felicia Darling, Teachin’ It!  Breakout Moves that Breakdown Barriers for Community College Students.
  • Elizabeth Barkley, Student Engagement Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty.
  • Advancing Black Male Student Success from Preschool to Ph.D.  Edited by Shaun R. Harper and J. Luke Wood.